I – LINGUISTIC TYPOLOGY
1.1 Genetic typology: the family of Indo-European languages
1.2. Linguistic typology: phonetic, phonological, morphological and syntactic features; agglutinating and isolating languages, ….
II – CORPUS LINGUISTICS AND TRANSLATION
2.1. Corpus linguistics and corpora: definition, characterization and practical applications;
2.2. Creation and exploration of a bilingual parallel corpus: typology of corpora, how to query corpora, specialized corpora. Computational linguistic tools of Corpus Linguistics (WordSmith Tools, Corpógrafo, …)
III – LINGUISTIC APPROACH TO TRANSLATION PROBLEMS
3.1. Linguistic concepts for the analysis of translation: the different cases of transposition, the modulations (metaphorical, metonymical, grammatical), complex associations of transposition and modulation, …
3.2. Determination and noun group in Portuguese-English/French
3.3. Tense and aspect: theoretical problems and comparison based on bilingual texts;
3.4. The modalities (translation of modal auxiliary verbs, modalization of the utterance, …);
3.5. The syntactic organization (absence or presence of a verb phrase, levels of syntactic dependency, …);
3.6. The verbal constructions: from transitivity to causativity.
3.7. The syntax of lexical units and problems of lexical semantics (language register and stylistic compensation, loans and calques, neologisms, false cognates, hypernymy and hyponymy relations, collocations and idioms, …).